Conscription: A Comprehensive Bibliography


A Comprehensive Bibliography

CJ Hinke

PDF: CONSCRIPTION – Bibliography

Acara, Eda, A Case Study on the Discourse of Women’s Conscientious Objection in Turkey, Halifax: St. Mary’s University, 2010 (Master’s thesis)

Adams, R.J.Q. and Philip P. Poirer, The Conscription Controversy in Great Britain 1900-18, London: Macmillan, 1987.

Agirre, Xabier Aranburu, Rafael Ajangiz, Pedro Ibarra, and Rafael Sainz de Rozas, La insumisión: Un singular ciclo histórico de desobediencia civil, Madrid: Techno, 1998 [Spanish].

Aktas, Fatma Oya, Being a Conscientious Objector in Turkey: Challenging Hegemonic Masculinity in a Militaristic Nation-State,  Saarbrücken: Lambert, 2014.

Aktaş, Fatma Oya, “Being a Conscientious Objector in Turkey: Challenging Hegemonic Masculinity in a Militaristic Nation-State”, Budapest: Central European University, 2009

Aleksov, Bojan, “Resisting the War in Yugoslavia: Thoughts on Empowerment and Disillusionment”, London: War Resisters’ International, 2001.

Altınay, Ayşe Gül, The Myth of the Military Nation: Militarism, Gender and Education in Turkey, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

American Friends Service Committee and Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, What about the conscientious objector? A supplement to the Pacifist handbook, Philadelphia: Peace Section, 1940.

American Friends Service Committee, Source book on conscience and conscription and disarmament, Philadelphia:Peace Section, 1943.

Amnesty International, Out of the margins: the right to conscientious objection in Europe, London: 1997.

Amnesty International, Sentenced to Life: Conscientious Objectors in South Korea, London, 2015

Anderson, Martin (Editor), The Military Draft: Selected Readings on Conscription, Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1982.

Andrews, Eleanor,  Megan Bastick, Matthew East & Laurel Townhead, References to Conscientious Objection in the documents submitted to, and resolutions of,  the UN Commission on Human Rights, Geneva: Quaker United Nations Office, 2005.

Apinan Issarakura Na Ayutthaya (Ice) CO declaration

Arnold, Paul, The Story of Paul Arnold: A Conscientious Objector in the Korean War, Adventist Digital Library, August 11, 2015

Associated Press, “South Korea, world’s top jailer of conscientious objectors, resists giving them alternatives”, Fox News, January 17, 2014 

Austrian Pacifists: Austrian Christian Pacifists, Austrian Conscientious Objectors, General, 2010.

Auvray, Michel, Objecteurs, insoumis, déserteurs: Histoire de Réfractaires en France, Paris: Editions Stock, 1983.

Awadalla, Ahmed, “These Egyptians Say No to Mandatory Military Service”, Global Voices, May 23, 2014 No Military Service

Axelrad, Albert S., Call to Conscience: Jews, Judaism, and Conscientious Objection, Nyack: Jewish Peace Fellowship, 1986.

Balancie, J-M. and A. La Grange, Mondes rebelles: Guérillas, milices, groupes terroristes, Paris: Michalon, 2001.

Banderet, René, Tu ne tueras point: Lettre ouverte à un pasteur patriote, La Chaux-de-Fonds: Coopérative, 1917 [French]. 

Barbey, C., La non-militarisation et les pays sans armée: une réalité, Flendruz: Institut parcipatif pour le progès de la paix (APRED), 2001.

Barker, Rachel, Conscience, Government and War: Conscientious Objection in Great Britain, 1939-45, Abingdon: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982.

Baskir Lawrence M. and William A Strauss, Chance and Circumstance: The Draft, the War, and the Vietnam Generation, New York: Knopf, 1978.

Baskir and Strauss,  Reconciliation After Vietnam: Program of Relief for Vietnam Era Draft and Military Offenders,  Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1978.

Becker, Mark, “Men and Women Who Dare to Say No: Mennonite Resistance to Draft Registration 1980-1985”, North Newton: Bethel College, 1985.

Benney, Mark, Gaol Delivery, London: Longman Green, 1948.

Bernstein, J.L., “Conscription and the Constitution: The Amazing Case of Kneedler v. Lane”, American Bar Association Journal Vol. 53, 1967.

Bielefeldt, Heiner, Nazila Ghanea, and Michael Werner, Freedom of Religion or Belief: An International Law Commentary, Abingdon: Oxford University, 2016.

Bieri, Matthias, “Military Conscription in Europe: New Relevance”, CSS Analyses in Security Policy No. 180, October 2015

Bin Noon, Chemi, Civil Disobedience: The Israeli Experience, St. Paul: Paragon House, 2015.

Bin Noon, “Civil Disobedience, Rebellion, and Conscientious Objection”, International Institute for Counter-Terrorism, February 26, 2001

Blatt, Martin, Uri Davis, and Paul Kleinbaum, Dissent & Ideology in Israel: Resistance to the Draft 1948-1973, Reading: Ithaca, 1975.

Blevins, Aaron, Widow Makers: War Through the Eyes of an Apostolic Soldier, 2012.

Blum, Albert A., Drafted or Deferred: Practices Past and Present, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1967.

Boene, Bernard and Michel Louis Martin (Editors), Conscription & armée de métier, Paris: FEDN, 1991.

Bordzikashvili, Sulkhan, “Young Georgian draftees question compulsory ‘guard duty’”, OC Media, March 2, 2017.

Boulton, David, Objection Overruled, London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1967.

Bouvier, Patrick,  Déserteurs et insoumis: Les Canadiens-français et la justice militaire (1914–1918), Outremont: Athéna Éditions, 2003.

Boyle, Beth, Words of Conscience: Religious Statements on Conscientious Objection,  Washington: National Interreligious Service Board for Conscientious Objectors, 1983.

Braithwaite, Constance, Conscientious Objection to Various Compulsions under British Law, York: William Sessions, 1995.

Braw, Elisabeth, “Bring back the draft. No, really.”, Politico, January 21, 2018

Braw, “The Return of the Military Draft”, Atlantic Council, February 2017

Brett, Derek, Conscientious objection to military service, Geneva: Quaker Peace and Service, 1994.

Brett,  Rachel, “International Standards on Conscientious Objection to Military Service”, New York: Quaker United Nations Office, 2011

Brett, R. & I. Specht, Young soldiers: Why they choose to fight, Boulder: Lynne Riener, 2004.

Brett, R. & M. McCallin, Children: the invisible soldiers, Stockholm: Rädda Barnen (Swedish Save the Children), 1998.

British Broadcasting Corporation, “Germany considers return of conscription for civil defence”, August 23, 2016

Brock, Hannah, “The return of conscription?”, War Resisters’ International, January 18, 2018

Brown, Frederick L., Stephen M. Kohn, and Michael D. Kohn, “Conscientious Objection: A Constitutional Right,” New England Law Review Vol 21 No 3, 1985-1986.

Brownlee, Kimberley, “Conscientious Objection and Civil Disobedience”, Warwick School of Law Research Paper No. 2012/15, In: A. Marmor Editor), The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Law, London: Routledge, 2012

Brush, Kaitlin, “The Right to Conscientious Objection and How South Korea Falls Short”, Human Rights Brief, April 19, 2011

Burtchaeli, James Tunstead, A Just War No Longer Exists: The Teaching and Trial of Don Lorenzo Milani, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1988.

Buturovic, J, “How to solve the problem of conscripts who avoided military service”, Belgrade: Centre for Civil-Military Relations, 2005

Callister, Graeme, Compliance, Compulsion and Contest: Aspects of Military Conscription in South Africa 1952-1992, Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch, 2007 (Master’s thesis).

Cattelain, Jean-Pierre, L’objection de conscience, Paris: Presses Universitaire de France, 1973 [French]

Cattelain, A objecção de consciência, Porto: Telos, 1973 [Portuguese)

Cattelain, La objección de conciencia, Barcelona: Oikos-tau, 1973 [Spanish].

Cawthra, G., G. Kraak, G., and G. O’Sullivan, War and Resistance: Southern African Reports, London: Macmillan, 1994.

Center on Conscience and War, Conscientious Objectors and the Draft, Washington, 2002.

Center on Conscience and War, State Penalties for Non-registrants, Washington, 2004 http//

[CCCO] Seeley, Robert A., To Study War No More: A Bibliography on War, Peace, and Conscience, Philadelphia: Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors, 1979.

[CCCO] Seeley,  Handbook for Conscientious Objectors, 13th edition, Philadelphia: Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors, 1981.

[CCCO] Seeley (Editor), Standing with Those Who Say No: The Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors 1948-1988, Chicago: CCCO, 1988.

Challenor, Martin, Fighting for my country,  Cape Town: Robyn, 2011.

Chambers, John Whiteclay II, To Raise An Army: The Draft Comes to Modern America, New York: Free Press, 1987.

Chomsky, Noam, The Trials of the Resistance, New York: New York Review of Books, 1970.

Çınar and Coşkun Üsterci (Editors) Çarklardaki Kum: Vicdani Red, Düşünsel Kaynaklar ve Deneyimler [Sand in the Wheels: Conscientious Reds Intellectual Resources and Experience] (Turkish), İstanbul: İletişim, 2008.

Çınar  and Üsterci (Editors), Conscientious Objection: Resisting Militarized Society, London: Zed Books, 2009. 

Çınar, Conscientious Objection to Military Service in International Human Rights Law, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Çınar, The Right to Conscientious Objection to Military Service and Turkey’s Obligations under International Human Rights Law, London: Palgrave-Pivot, 2014.

Çınar and Mine Yıldırım (Editor), Freedom of Religion and Belief in Turkey, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2014.

Clifford, J. Garry and Samuel R. Spencer, Jr., The First Peacetime Draft, Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1986.

Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers Global Report 2004.

Connors, Judith Patricia, Empowering Alternatives” A History of the Conscientious Objector Support Group’s Challenge to Military service in South Africa, Durban: University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2007 (Master’s thesis).

Conscientious Objection in America: Primary Sources for Research, Swarthmore College Peace College

Corcoran, Amy F.W., “Asylum for Refusing to Fight: Charting the Development Towards the Right to Conscientious Objection”, The King’s Student Law Review Vol 5 No 1, Spring 2014

Corley, F., “Uzbekistan: Jehovah’s Witnesses Criticise Conscientious Objector Trials”, Keston News Service, April 6,  2001

Council of Europe, Directorate General of Human Rights Conscientious objection to compulsory military service, CoE Doc. H(2002)2, Strasbourg, 2002

Cowie, Jim A., Conscientious Objection to Military Service: A Manual Designed to Assist Christadelphian Young People Facing the Prospect of a National Service Call-Up, Adelaide: Christadelphian Scripture Study Service, 1999

Cuadernos del Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas, Objeccion de conciencia, National Autonomous University of México (UNAM), 1997 [Spanish] [Spanish].

Davis, Uri, Crossing the Border: An Autobiography of an Anti-Zionist Palestinian Jew, Coral Gables: Books & Books, 1995. Middle East Book Review, 2017.

Day, Dorothy, “If Conscription Comes for Women”, Catholic Worker, 1943.

Day, Hem [pseudonym], Bible de l’objecteur de conscience et de raison, Paris: Pensée et action, 1957 [French].

Delton, Carol Leah and Andrew Mazer, Everybody’s Guide to Non-Registration, East Bay, 1980.

Draper, John and Siwach Sripokangful, “Convert mass conscription to national service”, Prachatai, September 19, 2017

Drescher, John M., Why I Am a Conscientious Objector, Morgantown: Masthof, 2000.

Dolan, Edward F., Amnesty: The American Puzzle, New York: Franklin Watts, 1976.

Doty, Hi, Bibliography of Conscientious Objection to War: A Selected List,  Philadelphia: Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors, 1954.

Editors, “The Conscientious Objector and the First Amendment: There But for the Grace of God…”, University of Chicago Law Review Vol 34 No 1, 1966

Egan, Eileen,The Catholic Conscientious Objector: The Right to Refuse to Kill, Washington: Pax Christi, 1981.

Ellis, Barbara G., “Hillary’s No-Fly Zones and Resurrecting the Draft”, Dissident Voice: November 23, 2015

Elster, Ellen & Majken Jul Sørensen (Editors), Women Conscientious Objectors: An Anthology, London: War Resisters’ International, 2010

Engram, J.M., “Conscientious Objection to Military Service: A Report to the United Nations Division of Human Rights’, Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law Vol 12, 1982.

Enloe, Cynthia, Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women’s Lives, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Epstein, Alek D., “The freedom of conscience and sociological perspectives on dilemmas of collective secular disobedience”, Journal of Human Rights Vol. 1 No. 3, September 2002,%201,%203%20(2002).pdf.

Ertuğrul, Erol, Conscientious Objectors in Turkey: A Case of Emancipatory-Critical Security Thinking and Practice, Ankara: Middle East Technical University, 2013

Eun-Young Jeong, “As Risk of War Looms, South Korea Weighs Changing the Draft”, Wall Street Journal, November 25, 2017

European Bureau for Conscientious Objection (EBCO) Annual Reports

European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, CO applications

Everett, Owen (Editor), Sowing Seeds: The Militarisation of Youth and How to Counter It, London: War Resisters’ International, 2013.

Eyal, Jonathan, “The return of military national service in Europe”, Straits Times, March 6, 2017

Fagan, Geraldine, Believing in Russia: Religious Policy After Communism, Abingdon: Routledge, 2014.

Fiala, Andrew, Public War, Private Conscience: The Ethics of Political Violence, London: Continuum, 2010.

Field, G.C., Pacifism and Conscientious Objection, Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1945.

Finn, James (Editor), A Conflict of Loyalties: The Case for Selective Conscientious Objection, New York: Pegasus, 1968.

Flynn, George Q., Conscription and Democracy: The Draft in France, Great Britain, and the United States, Westport: Greenwood, 2002.

Flynn, The Draft 1940-1973, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993.

Flynn, Lewis B. Hershey: Mr. Selective Service, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1985.

French, Paul Comly, We Won’t Murder: Being the story of men who followed their conscientious scruples and helped give life to democracy, New York: Hastings House, 1940.

Friedman, Robert P., and Charles Leistner, Conmpulsory Service Systems: A Critical Discussion and Debate Sourcebook, Columbia: Artcraft Press, 1968. 

Friends of Peace Monuments, “69 Monuments Related to Pacifists, Conscientious Objectors & War Resisters” 

Gaylin, Willard, In the Service of Their Country: War Resisters in Prison, New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1970.

“Georgian opposition party registers ‘religion’ for men to avoid conscription”,  OC Media, April 24, 2017

Gold, Philip, The Coming Draft: The Crisis in Our Military and Why Selective Service Is Wrong for America, New York: Ballantine, 2006.

Goodall, Felicity, A Question of Conscience: Conscientious Objection in the Two World Wars, Stroud: Sutton, 1997.

Gorgen, Carol Perry, Catholic conscientious objectors, 1963?.

Grab, Alexander. “Army, State, and Society: Conscription and Desertion in Napoleonic Italy (1802-1814).” Journal of Modern History Vol 67 No 1, March 1995.

Graham, John W.,  Conscription and Conscience: A History 1916-1919, London: George Allen & Unwin, 1922.

Grantstein, J.L. and J. Mackay Hitsman, Broken Promises: A History of Conscription in Canada, Toronto: Oxford University, 1977.

Gross, Jürgen and Dieter S. Lutz, Wehrpflicht ausgedient, Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1998 [German].

Gale, Thomas, G., Sidelights on Conscription, London: International Arbitration and Peace Association, 1905.

Grudo, Cynthia Lee (Editor), Proceedings of the International Seminar on Conscientious Objection: From Religious Pacifism to Political Protest : Caesarea, Israel, November 18-20, 1992, Zikhron Ya’akov: Israeli Institute for Military Studies, 1992.

Guthrie, Arlo, “Alice’s Restaurant”

Hammer, Leonard M., The International Human Right to Freedom of Conscience: Some Suggestions for its Development and Application, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.

Han, Kirsten, “Military service as a force for division in Singapore”, Asia Times, October 11, 2017

Hasbrouck, Edward, “’Millions of Female Felons’”? Government admits resistance made draft registration unenforceable”, The Practical Nomad, May 3, 2016.

Hayes, Denis, Conscription Conflict, London: Sheppard, 1949.

Heath, Gordon L., “The Canadian Protestant Press and the Conscription Crisis 1917-1918”, Historical Studies 78, 2012.

Helmer, Martin (Editor), The Military Draft, Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1982.

Heisey, M.J., Peace and Persistence though Three Generations: Tracing the Brethren Christ Peace Witness, Kent: Kent State University, 2003.

Hermann, Tamar “Pacifism and Anti-Militarism in the Period Surrounding the Birth of the State of Israel”, Israel Studies Vol. 15 No. 2, July 2010

Hershey, Lewis B., Selective Service in Peacetime 1940-1941; Selective Service in Wartime 1941-1942; Selective Service As the Tide of War Turns 1943-1944; Selective Service Under the 1948 act 1948-1950, Washington: Selective Service, 1942.

Holman, Zoe, “The Living Hell of Being a Girl Soldier in Eritrea”, Vice, August 31, 2017

Horeman, Bart and Stolwijk, Marc Editors, Refusing to Bear Arms: A World Survey of Conscription and Conscientious Objection to Military Service, London: War Resisters’ International, 1998.

House Committee on the Judiciary, Judiciary Implications of Draft Registration: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and the Administration of Justice, US Government Printing Office, 1980.

Hughes, Chris, “Military conscription to return with 4,000 men and women called up due to ‘Russian aggression’”, The Mirror, March 2, 2017

Ichikawa Hiromi, 兵役拒否の思想 : 市民的不服従の理念と展開 [Heieki kyohi no shisō : shiminteki fufukujū no rinen to tenkai], Tokyo: Asahi Shōten, 2007 [Japanese].

Inagaki, Masami, 良心的兵役拒否の潮流 : 日本と世界の非戦の系譜 [Ryōshinteki heieki kyohi no chōryū: Nihon to sekai no hisen no keifu], Tokyo: Shakai Hihyōsha, 2002 [Japanese].

Initiative for Freedom of Expression (IFEX), Article 318 File TPC 318: Alienating the People from Military Service, İstanbul, 2007.

Jauncey, Leslie Cyril, The Story of Conscription in Australia, Sydney: Macmillan Australia, 1935

Joyce, James Avery (Editor), The Right to Refuse to Kill: A New Guide to Conscientious Objection and Service Refusal, in Human Rights, Berlin: International Peace Bureau International, 1978.

Kalifa, Dominique, Biribi: Les bagnes coloniaux de l’armée française, Paris, Perrin, 2009.

Keairns, Y.E., The voices of girl child soldiers: Sri Lanka, New York & Geneva: Quaker United Nations Office, 2005.

Keim, Albert, The CPS Story: An Illustrated History of Civilian Public Service, Intercourse: Good Books, 1990.

Kemerli, Pınar, “Religious Militarism and Islamist Conscientious Objection in Turkey”, International Journal of Middle East Studies No. 47, 2015

Kemerli, “Refusing to Become Pious Soldiers” in Contested Spaces in Contemporary Turkey: Environmental, Urban and Secular Politics, Fatma Müge Göçek (Editor), London: I.B. Tauris, 2017.

Kennedy, Thomas C., The Hound of Conscience: A History of the No-Conscription Fellowship 1914-1919, Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1981.

Keren, Michael, “Justification of conscientious objection: an Israeli case study”, International Journal of the Sociology of Law 26, March 1998.

Kessler, Jeremy K., The Invention of a Human Right: Conscientious Objection at the United Nations, 1947-2011, Columbia Human Rights Law Review Vol 44 No 3, Spring 2013

Kestnbaum, M., “Citizen-Soldiers, National Service and the Mass Army: The Birth of Conscription in Revolutionary Europe and North America.”, Comparative Social Research 20, 2002.

Khenin, Dov, Michael Sfard, and Sharon Rotbard (Editors), Trials of the Refuseniks [in Hebrew], Tel Aviv: Bavel, 2004.

Khomami, Nadia, “Return of conscription in Lithuania sparks debate over gender roles”, The Guardian, June 4, 2015

Kibreab, Gaim, The Eritrean National Service: Servitude for “the common good” and the Youth Exodus, Martlesham: James Currey, 2017.

Kidron, Peretz, Refusenik! Israel’s Soldiers of Conscience, London: Zed, 2005.

Klippenstein, Lawrence and Jacob Dick, Mennonite Alternative Service in Russia: The Story of Abram Dick and His Colleagues 1911-1917, Kitchener: Pandora, 2003.

Kohn, Stephen M., Jailed for Peace: The History of American Draft Law Violators 1658-1985, New York: Praeger, 1987.

Koller, Jeffery W., (Editor) The Eden Peace Witness: A Collection of Personal Accounts, Wichita: Jebeko, 2004.

Koru, Fatma Eli̇f , The Fusion of Gendered Horizons: A Femister Perspective on the Right to Conscientious Objection/A Possible Path to Overcome Militarism?, Lund: Lund University, 2012 

Krehbiel, Nicholas A., General Lewis B. Hershey and Conscientious Objecttion During World War II,  Columbia: University of Missouri, 2011.

Kupferberg, Tuli, 1001 Ways to Beat the Draft, New York: Grove, 1967.

Langley, Silas, America and the Conscientious Objector in the Early Cold  War: Arthur Jost vs. the United States 1954, (Unpublished), Fresno, 1991.

Larson, Zelle A.,  An Unbroken Witness: Conscientious Objection to War 1948-1953,  Manoa: University of Hawai’i, 1975.

Lawyers Committee for International Human Rights and Quaker United Nations Office, Conscientious objection to military service as a human right : a background paper, New York: UN Commission on Human Rights, 1980.

Lecoin, Louis, De prison en prison, Antony Seine, 1947.

Lecoin, Le cours d’une vie, Paris: Liberté, 1965.

Lecoin, La Nation face à l’armée,  Paris: Union pacifiste.

Lecoin, Écrits de Louis Lecoin, Paris: Union pacifiste, 1974.

[Louis Lecoin] Garel Sylvain, Louis Lecoin et le mouvement anarchiste, Fresnes: Volonté anarchiste, 1982.

[Louis Lecoin] Lemonnier Jean-Claude, Louis Lecoin combattant de la Paix Saint-Amand-Montrond: Anima, 1991.

[Lecoin] Union pacifiste et Amis de Louis Lecoin, Louis LECOIN, homme de paix, Paris: Union pacifiste, 2011.

[Louis Lecoin] Davranche, Guillaume, Trop jeunes pour mourir. Ouvriers et révolutionnaires face à la guerre (1909-1914), Paris: L’Insomniaque/Libertalia, 2014.

Lee, Yu Kyung, “I Will Not Be a Soldier in Any Violent Army”, Another Word is Possible, February, 21, 2016

 Lendman, Stephen, “Israel Targets Conscientious Objectors”, Activist Post, January 2, 2014.

Levi, Margaret and Stephen DeTray, “A Weapon against War: Conscientious Objection in the United States, Australia, and France”, Politics and Society Vol. 21, No. 4, 1993.

Linn, Ruth, “Resistance and motivation – moral, political, or personal? Israeli soldiers as selective conscientious objectors during the Intifada”,  Social Behavior and Personality Vol. 23 No. 1, 1995.

Linn, Conscience at War: The Israeli Soldier as a Moral Critic, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.

Lippman, Matthew, “The Recognition of Conscientious Objection to Military Service as an International Human Right”, Scholarly Commons Vol 21 No 1, 1990

Little, Roger William, Selective Service and American Society, New York: Russell Sage, 1969.

Lynd, Conrad, How to Stay Out of the Army: A Guide to Your Rights under the Draft Law, New York: Monthly Review Press, 1968.

Lyon, Robert Hugh, Korea: Life and Military Service of a Conscientious Objector, Morrisville: Lulu, 2009.

McNeil, J.E. and Bill Galvin, Draft Counselor’s Manual, Washington: Center on Conscience and War, 2002.

McNitt, William H., Bibliography of resources on the history  of pacifism and conscientious objection in the Michigan Historical Collections, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1973.

Major, Marie-France, “Conscientious objection and International Law”, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 1992. 

Major, “Conscientious Objection to Military Service: The European Commission on Human Rights and the Human Rights Committee, California Western International Law Journal, 2001.

Mannhardt, Wilhelm, The Military Service Exemption of the Mennonites of Provincial Prussia, Mishawaka: Bethel College, 2013.

Marcus, Emily N., “Conscientious Objection as an Emerging Human Right”, Virginia Journal of International Law 38, 1998.

Matthews, Janie, “Sweden opts to return to conscription”, Euractiv, March 2, 2017

Medina, Barak, “Political Disobedience in the IDF: The Scope of the Legal Right of Soldiers to Be Excused from Taking Part in Military Activities in the Occupied Territories”, Israel Law Review 38/1, 2002.

Mehl-Laituri, Logan, “The Right to Refuse to Bear Arms”, Sojourners, December 2010

Mehl-Laituri,  For God and Country (in that order), Kitchener: Herald, 2013.

Merklin, Lewis, Those Chose Honor: The Problem of Conscience in Custody, New York: Harper and Row, 1974.

Michel D., Louise, “An Interview with David Bozzini, specializing in Eritrea”, Geeska Afrika Online, July 14, 2014

Millan Garrido, Antonio, La objecion de conciencia al servicio militar y la prestacion social sustitutoria: Su regimen en el derecho positivo Espanol, Madrid: Tecnos, 1990.

Miller, Melissa and Phil M. Shenk, The Path of Most Resistance: Stories of Mennonite Objectors Who did Not Coöperate with the Vietnam War Draft, Scottsdale: Herald, 1982.

Mjoset, Lars and Stephen Van Holde, “Killing for the State, Dying for the Nation: An Introductory Essay on the Life Cycle of Conscription into Europe’s Armed Force.” Comparative Social Research 20, 2002.

Mjøset and Stephen van Holde (Editors), “The comparative study of conscription in the armed forces” Comparative Social Research 20, 2002.

Moorehead, Caroline, Troublesome People: The Warriors of Pacifism, Enemies of War 1916-1986, Chevy Chase:  Adler & Adler, 1987.

Moran, Daniel, “Woman applying for US citizenship refuses oath to bear arms, told to be religious to be exempt”, A News Reports, June 19, 2013.

Moran and Arthur Waldron (Editors), People in Arms: Military myth and national mobilization since the French Revolution, Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2003.

Moroi, Yuichi, Ethics of Conviction and Civic Responsibility: Conscientious War Resisters in America During  the World Wars, Lanham: UPA, 2008.

Morris, Stuart Denton, Pacifism and Conscientious Objection, Philadelphia: American Friends Service Committee, 1963.

Murdoch Jim, Protecting the Right to Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion under the European Convention on Human Rights, Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 2012.

Musalo, Karen, “Conscientious Objection as a Basis for Refugee Status Protection for the Fundamental Right of Freedom of Thought, Conscience, and Religion, Refugee Survey Quarterly No 69, 2007 

National Assembly of Conscientious Objectors of Colombia, “The State of Militarization and conscientious objection in Columbia”, London: War Resisters’ International, 2007.

Navarro Floria, Juan G., El derecho a la objeción de conciencia, Buenos Aires: Depalma, 2004 [Spanish].

Navarro-Valls, Rafael and Javier Martínez-Torron Conflictos entre conciencia y ley: Las objeciones de conciencia, Madrid: Iustel, 2012 [Spanish].

Niebergall-Lackner, Heike, Status and Treatment of Deserters in International Armed Conflicts, Leiden: Brill, 2016.

Nieminen, Kati, “Rebels without a Cause? Civil Disobedience, Conscientious Objection and the Art of Argumentation in the Case Law of the European court of Human Rights”, Oñati Socio-Legal Series Vol 5 No 5, 2015 

Noone, Michael F. (Editor), Selective Conscientious Objection, Boulder: Westview, 1989.

Obiezione di coscienza al servizio militare: Profili giuridici prospettive legislative, Padua: Antonio Milani CEDAM, 1989.

Occipinti, Maria, Pippo Guerrieri, Letizia Giarratana, and Franco Leggo, Rebellious Spirit: Maria Occhipinti and the Ragusa Anti-Draft Revolt of 1945, Kate Sharpley Library, 2008.

O’Connor, P.S., “The Awkward Ones—Dealing with Conscience 1916-1918”, New Zealand Journal of History, Vol. 8, No. 2, October 1974.

Oliver, Bobbie, Peacemongers: Conscientious Objectors to Military Service in Australia 1911-1945, South Fremantle: Fremantle Arts Centre, 1997.

Oosthuizen, Anthony J. “Religious Objection to Military Service: A Historical Perspective”, Journal of the University of Durban-Westville, 1986.

O’Sullivan, John and A.M. Meckler (Editors), The Draft and Its Enemies: A Documentary History, Urbana: University of Illinois, 1974.

Palomino, Rafael, Las objeciones de conciencia: Conflictos entre concienciay le en el derecho Norteamericano, Madrid: Montecorvo, 1994.

Pennac, Daniel, O serviço militar : ao serviço de quem?, Braga: Moraes, 1973 [Portuguese].

Pepper, Rollin E., Civilian Public Service: An Unplanned Adventure 1943-1946, 2002.

Perry, Shawn (Editor), Words of Conscience: Religious Statements on Conscientious Objection, Washington: National Interreligious Service Board for Conscientious Objectors, 1980.

Pflüger, Tobias, “Professional soldiers and the right to conscientious objection in the European Union”, Information against war, repression, and for another society No. 5, 2008.

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